Fin and Tail rot - fungus)
Caused by the crustacean parasite Lernaea
SYMPTOMS Anchor worms can be clearly seen clinging to
TREATMENT Organophosphorus insecticide such as
metriphonate (0.25-0.4 mg / litre, continuous bath for 7-10 days,
may need repeating) to kill juvenile stages. Manually remove adults
from fish body.
Caused by fish louse i.e. Argulus spp.
SYMPTOMS The fish louse is a flattened, disk-shaped
crustacean measuring up to 10mm in diameter. It attaches to the skin
and fins of the fish via twin suckers and feeds on blood. May be
seen crawling over the fish's body. The intense irritation may cause
fish to scratch against rocks or even jump out of the water.
TREATMENT Treat the whole tank with organophosphorus
insecticides such as metriphonate (0.25-0.4 mg / liter, continuous
bath for 7-10 days, may need repeated). If fishes sensitive to this
medication are present (e.g. piranhas), treat them separately with
potassium permanganate (10-20 mg/liter, 30 minute bath).
Update > Ioanna
Pavlou from Cyprus came in with the following link (
) which leads to
Schering Plough's "Slice" (active ingredient : emamectin
benzoate) which is specifically aimed at this parasite in
aquacultures. Being produced by a large pharmaceutical company means
more clinical studies, better availability for the hobbyist and
better tolerance for the fish. Further information for Slice below:
Dosage and Administration:
Medicated feed is prepared by coating SLICE* Premix onto the surface
of non-medicated fish feed pellets.
Administer at 50μg/kg fish biomass/day for seven consecutive days.
The suggested feeding rate is 0.5% fish biomass per day. This would
require two 2.5 kg sachets of SLICE* Premix for each 1,000 kg of
Withdrawal time: Approved species, claims and
withdrawal times may vary from country to country. Please check your
local package insert or contact your local Schering-Plough Animal
Health representative for more details.
Product Presentation: SLICE* Premix is supplied
in 2.5 kg sachets containing 5 g of emamectin benzoate (0.2% w/w)
Special Requirements: As designated by local
Storage Conditions: Store in a dry place. Between 2o
and 30o C.
Shelf-life: Sachet - Emamectin Benzoate 0.2%
Aquaculture Premix has a shelf life of 36 months Medicated feed - 6
PREVENTION Maintain a much higher standard of aqua
system hygiene, paying particular attention to filter cleanliness
and avoiding overfeeding. Always stir up filter-bed before siphoning
off old aquarium water when carrying out a partial water changes.
Never use non-irradiated seafood, Daphnia, Tubifex, bloodworm,
diseases (gram negative)
DISEASE BACTERIAL - caused by several
species of rod-shaped, motile, (="mobile"), Gram-negative
bacteria. Most species belong to the Aeromonas
genus. Disease can be caused by overfeeding, poor hygiene /
filtration, ammonia / nitrite toxicity.
SYMPTOMS Body-rot, fin-rot, tail-rot, patches of angry
red tissue on body, hemorrhagic discoloration of vent (anal) area of
abdomen; any or all of the above symptoms if not promptly treated
may quickly deteriorate into the following terminal symptoms:-
bloated appearance of abdomen (but scales Not standing off body),
Exophthalmia ("Popeye"), abnormally high respiratory rate
(i.e. faster than 90 gill beats/min.).
TREATMENT In a soft, acid water aquarium, improve the
water quality and decrease bacteria-count by buffering water. Use a
general proprietary antibacterial preparation as a water treatment,
and (if possible) by brush application to infected area. Increase
aeration and filtration to maximum acceptable level.
a) By regular usage of sensitive Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate test
kits, so regulate the amount of feeding to ensure that free
ammonia/nitrite NEVER appear in your aqua system. With correctly
designed filtration system, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate should
never be allowed to climb above minimal levels.
b) Never overfeed:
c) Never use "spoiled" foods:
d) Never use frozen sea foods, daphnia, tubifex etc., which have not
been gamma-ray irradiated
e) Always quarantine doubtful looking fish in water treated with a
proprietary antibacterial agent
f) ALWAYS prevent vitamin deficiency in captive fishes by using
summarize the above in a few words, what one is really saying
is:- Disease in fishes, as in all creatures, is always an inevitable
response to STRESS EXPOSURE. Stress in the aquatic environment can
assume many forms, i.e. chemical (=pH, nitrogenous toxins), physical
(=temp., S.G., oxygen tension), biological (=poor feeding, vitamin
deficiency, etc.), psychological (=aggression, Clumsy handling).
Avoid stress = no disease.
Caused by freshwater beetles.
SYMPTOMS The adults and larvae of some freshwater
beetles can kill fish as large as themselves. They suck the juices
from the victim's body, leaving the dead fish without any obvious
signs apart from small puncture wounds.
TREATMENT Removing and cleaning all elements of the
aquarium is the only real answer to this problem.
PREVENTION Be sure to inspect new material very
Caused by the larval stage of digenetic fluke parasites, such as Clinostomum,
SYMPTOMS Black color cysts develop on the body and
fins. Small numbers cal do little harm but large numbers can harm
TREATMENT Very rarely necessary and is difficult if
PREVENTION Avoid obviously infected fish and
discourage fish-eating birds from visiting garden ponds to prevent
the life cycle being completed.
Caused by protozoan like Trypanosoma
and the digenetic fluke, Sanguinicola.
SYMPTOMS Usually lacking. In severe cases anemia,
listless behavior, emaciation, pop eye. In the case of Sanguinicola
extensive gill and kidney damage.
TREATMENT Injectable praziquantel (for the fish; 5-100
mg/Kg fish, with feed over several days or injected intramuscularly)
and an organophosphorus insecticide such as metriphonate to kill the
leeches (0.25-0.4 mg / liter, continuous bath for 7-10 days, may
slime (see Sliminess
of the Skin)
Camallanus (see Worms
in the intestine)
Caused - usually - by the Flexibacter
bacterium which is not a fungus.
SYMPTOMS Initially off-white marks around the mouth or
on the fins or the body of the fish. Later cotton-wool-lie tufts
appear in the mouth region.
TREATMENT At early stages (only external infection) a
general aquarium antibacterial or phenoxyethanol (100 mg/liter,
continuous bath for at least 7 days) based remedy can be used. In
later stages (internal infection established), a broad spectrum
antibiotic should be used. WARNING: Although the name of the disease
implies a fungal infection, this is not the case. Do not use
antifungal preparations as these may "mask" the symptoms
and allow the disease to develop unnoticed.
PREVENTION Frequent water changes, avoid overstocking,
quarantine newly purchased fish.
- you may also click to the following link for a
List of medication products by leading