of Active Ingredients
This is a list of the most common compounds used in
fish keeping for Medication, Anesthesia, Sedation, Sterilization
Disifection, and Antisepsis
form followed is the following: Compound
name (generic not commercial name)
- Way to use it and / or route of
administration (if applicable); (concentration / treatment duration)
- indications - special precautions.
acid bath (1-2 ml glacial acetic
acid/Liter WARNING: handle glacial acetic acid with care and always
wear gloves; treat for 45 seconds to 10 min) - Ectoparasites.
used anymore due to the development of many resistant strains) -
systemic bacterial infections.
trihydrate orally (40-80 mg / Kg
fish for 10 days) or injected - systemic bacterial infections.
ampicillin sodium orally
(50-80 mg / Kg fish for 10 days) or injected - systemic bacterial
(50-500 mg/liter; will cause anesthesia within 60 seconds), sedative
(10-40 mg/liter for fish transportation).
anesthetic, water buffer.
injected (20-50 mg/Kg fish
intra-peritoneal once per week for two weeks) - systemic bacterial
bath, orally or injected - Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot, systemic
bath (0.15 mg/liter) - Skin and gill protozoans, flukes etc.
bath (0.03 mg/litre) Highly effective
bath, orally or injected - Hexamita (hole-in-the-head-disease).
Sulfafurazole) injected - Wasting
(2 mg/liter for 5 days), orally (10 mg/Kg fish for 10 days) or
injected (10 mg/Kg fish IM or IP every 3 days) - systemic bacterial
(25-50 mg/Kg fish for 4 to 7 days) - Systemic
bacterial infections (primarily kidney infections).
(50-100 mg/liter for 3 hours), orally (10 mg/Kg fish for 10 days),
injectable (30 mg/Kg fish IP) - systemic
(15-25 mg/liter) Skin and gill protozoans, sliminess of the skin.
Sterilization: 6-8%, Disinfection: 1-8%, Antisepsis: 70%.
immersion (20-50 mg/liter for 24 hours) - systemic bacterial
immersion (1-10 mg/liter at least for 24 hours), orally (50-100
mg/Kg fish for 10 to 15 days) - systemic bacterial infections (e.g.
ulcer disease), Hexamita (hole-in-the-head-disease), symptoms
associated with neon tetra disease.
prolonged immersion (50-100 mg/liter every 3 days for 3 treatments,
changing 50% of the water after every treatment), orally (50 mg/Kg
fish), injectable (20 mg/Kg fish IP every 3 days for 14 days) -
bath (50-60 mg/liter for 10 to 30 seconds or 1 mg/liter for 30-60
min), prolonged immersion (0.10 mg/liter three times at 3 days
intervals, remove residual chemical with activated carbon after end
of treatment), swab (swab a 100 mg/liter solution onto skin lesions)
- Fungus, white spot, sliminess of the body, velvet, mold infections
and water ectoparasites.
green+formalin prolonged immersion
(25 ppm formalin + 0.10 mg/liter malachite green; treat every other
day for three days; perform 50% changes on alternate days) -
Sliminess of the skin, ICH, other external protozoans and flukes.
Continuous bath (2 mg/liter for several days, may need repeating) -
egg fungus, external protozoans.
Anchor worms, skin and gill flukes, parasitic crustaceans, leeches.
Continuous bath (7 mg/liter every 2 days;
repeat three times) Hexamita (hole-in-the-head-disease).
Continuous bath (7 mg/liter for two days, perform a complete water
change and repeat - WARNING: do not repeat a third time as this may
prove lethal) - Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot. WARNING: To be used
only if tetracyclines have failed.
sulfafurazole) Wasting disease.
(water soluble form) bath (13 mg/liter for 1 to 4 hours, repeat if
needed)- systemic bacterial infections.
Prolonged immersion (66 mg/liter every 3
days for 3 times maximum) - systemic bacterial infections.
Intestinal helminthes, particularly tapeworms.
bath (1-2 mg/liter for 5 min to 6 hours), prolonged immersion (0.1
mg/liter for 3 to 5 days), orally (4-10 mg/Kg fish twice daily for 5
days) - Fin rot, cotton-wool-like disease, systemic bacterial
bath (100 mg/liter for 30 min or 10
mg/liter for 6-12 hours; may be repeated if needed), prolonged
immersion (at least 2 mg/liter for 5 to 10 days) - systemic
bath (25 mg/liter for 15 min; repeat twice daily for 3 days),
prolonged immersion (1 mg/liter for 24 hours), orally (10 mg/Kg fish
for 10 days) - Systemic bacterial infections.
hydrochloride Bath (10-50 mg/liter
for 1 hour), prolonged immersion (10-100 mg/liter for 1-3 days;
higher doses in hard water; treat again on the third day after a 50%
water change), orally (55-83 mg/Kg fish for 10 days), injectable
(25-50 mg/Kg fish IM or IP) - WARNING : This medication is
photosensitive; turn lights off and cover the tank throughout
treatment - Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot, Systemic bacterial
infections. WARNING: some resistant strains to oxytetracycline
exist. If this is the case, you may switch to minocycline. Always
try oxytetracycline first - use minocycline as the last resort.
chlorides Desinfection of nets,
glasses, gravel, stones. Use tap water conditioner in the washing
stages to remove chlorine.
potassium Active against fish lice;
Cotton-wool-like disease, fin rot.
sulphonamide Systemic bacterial
blood parasites, internal helminthes, (perhaps) fish heartworm.
tested) - systemic bacterial
trimethoprim orally (30-50 mg/Kg
fish for 7-10 days), injectable (125 mg/Kg fish IP) - systemic
sulfadimethoxine - ormetroprim orally
only (50 mg/Kg fish for 5 days) - systemic bacterial infections.
- Systemic bacterial infections.
doxycycline HCl or minocycline HCl)
- wasting disease.
orally only (220 mg/Kg fish for 14 days) -
systemic bacterial infections Warning: many resistant strains of
pathogens, may not be effective.
- trimethoprim bath (25 mg/liter
for 6-12 hours), orally (50 mg/Kg fish for 10 days), injectable (50
mg/Kg fish every day for seven days) systemic bacterial infections.
in next page
- you may also click to the following link for a
List of medication products by leading