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Diseases in the Aquarium - Part VII
A nearly complete guide to Fish Diseases

 
An Article by George J. Reclos

List of Active Ingredients
This is a list of the most common compounds used in fish keeping for Medication, Anesthesia, Sedation, Sterilization Disifection, and  Antisepsis

The form followed is the following: Compound name (generic not commercial name) - Way to use it and / or route of administration (if applicable); (concentration / treatment duration) - indications - special precautions.

Acetic acid bath (1-2 ml glacial acetic acid/Liter WARNING: handle glacial acetic acid with care and always wear gloves; treat for 45 seconds to 10 min) - Ectoparasites.
Acriflavin (not used anymore due to the development of many resistant strains) - systemic bacterial infections.
amoxixillin trihydrate orally (40-80 mg / Kg fish for 10 days) or injected - systemic bacterial infections.
ampicillin sodium
orally (50-80 mg / Kg fish for 10 days) or injected - systemic bacterial infections.
benzaldehyde green
benzocaine anesthetic (50-500 mg/liter; will cause anesthesia within 60 seconds), sedative (10-40 mg/liter for fish transportation).
carbon dioxide anesthetic, water buffer.
chloramphenicol injected (20-50 mg/Kg fish intra-peritoneal once per week for two weeks) - systemic bacterial infections.
chlortetracycline
  bath, orally or injected - Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot, systemic bacterial infections.
copper sulphate bath (0.15 mg/liter) - Skin and gill protozoans, flukes etc.
difluorobenzuron
bath (0.03 mg/litre) Highly effective against Lernaea.
dimetridazole bath, orally or injected - Hexamita (hole-in-the-head-disease).
doxycycline hydrochloride (+ Sulfafurazole) injected - Wasting disease.
enrofloxacin bath (2 mg/liter for 5 days), orally (10 mg/Kg fish for 10 days) or injected (10 mg/Kg fish IM or IP every 3 days) - systemic bacterial infections.
erythromycin
Orally (25-50 mg/Kg fish for 4 to 7 days) - Systemic bacterial infections (primarily kidney infections).
Flumequine
bath (50-100 mg/liter for 3 hours), orally (10 mg/Kg fish for 10 days), injectable (30 mg/Kg fish IP) - systemic bacterial infections.
formalin
Bath (15-25 mg/liter) Skin and gill protozoans, sliminess of the skin. Sterilization: 6-8%, Disinfection: 1-8%, Antisepsis: 70%.
Furaltadone prolonged immersion (20-50 mg/liter for 24 hours) - systemic bacterial infections.
furazolidone
prolonged immersion (1-10 mg/liter at least for 24 hours), orally (50-100 mg/Kg fish for 10 to 15 days) - systemic bacterial infections (e.g. ulcer disease), Hexamita (hole-in-the-head-disease), symptoms associated with neon tetra disease.
kanamycin sulphate  prolonged immersion (50-100 mg/liter every 3 days for 3 treatments, changing 50% of the water after every treatment), orally (50 mg/Kg fish), injectable (20 mg/Kg fish IP every 3 days for 14 days) - Wasting disease.
levamisole Internal nematodes.
malachite green bath (50-60 mg/liter for 10 to 30 seconds or 1 mg/liter for 30-60 min), prolonged immersion (0.10 mg/liter three times at 3 days intervals, remove residual chemical with activated carbon after end of treatment), swab (swab a 100 mg/liter solution onto skin lesions) - Fungus, white spot, sliminess of the body, velvet, mold infections and water ectoparasites.
Malachite green+formalin prolonged immersion (25 ppm formalin + 0.10 mg/liter malachite green; treat every other day for three days; perform 50% changes on alternate days)  - Sliminess of the skin, ICH, other external protozoans and flukes.
Mebendazole Intestinal tapeworms.
methylene blue  Continuous bath (2 mg/liter for several days, may need repeating) - egg fungus, external protozoans.
metriphonate  Anchor worms, skin and gill flukes, parasitic crustaceans, leeches.
Metronidazole Continuous bath (7 mg/liter every 2 days; repeat three times) Hexamita (hole-in-the-head-disease).
minocycline Continuous bath (7 mg/liter for two days, perform a complete water change and repeat - WARNING: do not repeat a third time as this may prove lethal) - Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot. WARNING: To be used only if tetracyclines have failed.
(minocycline + sulfafurazole)
Wasting disease.
nalidixic acid (water soluble form) bath (13 mg/liter for 1 to 4 hours, repeat if needed)- systemic bacterial infections.
neomycin sulfate Prolonged immersion (66 mg/liter every 3 days for 3 times maximum) - systemic bacterial infections.
niclosamide Intestinal helminthes, particularly tapeworms.
nifupririnol bath (1-2 mg/liter for 5 min to 6 hours), prolonged immersion (0.1 mg/liter for 3 to 5 days), orally (4-10 mg/Kg fish twice daily for 5 days) - Fin rot, cotton-wool-like disease, systemic bacterial infections.
nitrofurazone bath (100 mg/liter for 30 min or 10 mg/liter for 6-12 hours; may be repeated if needed), prolonged immersion (at least 2 mg/liter for 5 to 10 days) - systemic bacterial infections.
oxolinic acid  bath (25 mg/liter for 15 min; repeat twice daily for 3 days), prolonged immersion (1 mg/liter for 24 hours), orally (10 mg/Kg fish for 10 days) - Systemic bacterial infections.
oxytetracycline hydrochloride Bath (10-50 mg/liter for 1 hour), prolonged immersion (10-100 mg/liter for 1-3 days; higher doses in hard water; treat again on the third day after a 50% water change), orally (55-83 mg/Kg fish for 10 days), injectable (25-50 mg/Kg fish IM or IP) - WARNING : This medication is photosensitive; turn lights off and cover the tank throughout treatment - Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot, Systemic bacterial infections. WARNING: some resistant strains to oxytetracycline exist. If this is the case, you may switch to minocycline. Always try oxytetracycline first - use minocycline as the last resort.
perchlorates / chlorides Desinfection of nets, glasses, gravel, stones. Use tap water conditioner in the washing stages to remove chlorine.
Permanganate potassium Active against fish lice; disinfection.
phenoxyethanol Cotton-wool-like disease, fin rot.
2-phenoxyethanol Anesthetic.
Piperazine citrate Intestinal roundworms.
Potentiated sulphonamide Systemic bacterial infections.
povidone/colloid mixture
praziquantel
blood parasites, internal helminthes, (perhaps) fish heartworm.
Quinaldine sulfate Anesthetic
Sarafloxacin (being tested) - systemic bacterial infections.
sulfadiazin - trimethoprim orally (30-50 mg/Kg fish for 7-10 days), injectable (125 mg/Kg fish IP) - systemic bacterial infections.
sulfadimethoxine - ormetroprim
orally only (50 mg/Kg fish for 5 days) - systemic bacterial infections.
sulfadimidine
  - Systemic bacterial infections.
sulfafurazole (+ doxycycline HCl or minocycline HCl)
- wasting disease.
Sulfamerazine orally only (220 mg/Kg fish for 14 days) - systemic bacterial infections Warning: many resistant strains of pathogens, may not be effective.
sulfamethazine
sulfamethozazole - trimethoprim
bath (25 mg/liter for 6-12 hours), orally (50 mg/Kg fish for 10 days), injectable (50 mg/Kg fish every day for seven days) systemic bacterial infections.
sulfathiazole

Continued in next page - you may also click to the following link for a List of medication products by leading manufacturers

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