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TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLE

Fahrenheit

Celsius

Kelvin

50

10,00

283,00

51

10,56

283,56

52

11,11

284,11

53

11,67

284,67

54

12,22

285,22

55

12,78

285,78

56

13,33

286,33

57

13,89

286,89

58

14,44

287,44

59

15,00

288,00

60

15,56

288,56

61

16,11

289,11

62

16,67

289,67

63

17,22

290,22

64

17,78

290,78

65

18,33

291,33

66

18,89

291,89

67

19,44

292,44

68

20,00

293,00

69

20,56

293,56

70

21,11

294,11

71

21,67

294,67

72

22,22

295,22

73

22,78

295,78

74

23,33

296,33

75

23,89

296,89

76

24,44

297,44

77

25,00

298,00

78

25,56

298,56

79

26,11

299,11

80

26,67

299,67

81

27,22

300,22

82

27,78

300,78

83

28,33

301,33

84

28,89

301,89

85

29,44

302,44

86

30,00

303,00

87

30,56

303,56

88

31,11

304,11

89

31,67

304,67

90

32,22

305,22

 

Temperature Conversion.

This is a table which lets you read an article written by a European (or an American if you are a European) and understand the temperature values referred to.

The Fahrenheit values are transformed to Celsius readings by subtracting 32 and then multiply the result by 5/9.

Thus, F--> C    C = (F-32)*5/9

The opposite is true for transforming Celsius to Fahrenheit. You have to add 32 to the Celsius reading and then multiply by 9/5. That is because the O of the Celsius scale (the temperature of melting ice) is the 32 of the Fahrenheit scale.

Thus C--> F     F = ( C*9/5)+32

The Kelvin readings (absolute temperature) is derived directly from the Celsius reading by adding the value 273.  That is because the absolute zero (Kelvin scale) is -273 C.

Thus C--> K    K = (C+273)

I have only included the range of temperatures that a fish keeper is likely to encounter in this hobby. You may use the formulas above to calculate any other value.

 

pH values
and their significance to the fish keeper
See next page for an analysis on the effect of pH on fishes

 
 

Neutral
pH=7

 

Acidic pH range = 0-6.99

Basic pH range : 7.01-14.0

No fish life supported

Some species

All

Some species

No fish life supported

Ammonia in the less toxic ammonium form

Ammonia stays in its deadly 
form

Nitrites become nitrous acid (HNO2 - extremely toxic)

Nitrites and nitrates are in their normal toxic form

>>>> To raise your pH you can use Baking soda (highly recommended), Magnesium sulfate (recommended), di-Potassium or di-Sodium Phosphate (recommended but may lead to algae bloom) and any strong base (not recommended). The correct mixture of mono-Sodium and di-Sodium Phosphate will create a phosphate buffer with a good capacity (requires a background in chemistry). To raise the pH you will need to add more di-Sodium than mono-Sodium salt in the mixture. Commercial preparation also available.

<<<< To decrease your pH value you can use mono-Sodium or mono-Potassium Phosphate (recommended but may lead to algae bloom), a combination of a weak acid with its sodium salt (e.g. acetic acid / Sodium acetate - not recommended if your chemistry background is weak) carbon dioxide injection (if you have a high buffering capacity - high KH) and strong acids (not recommended). Commercial preparations are also available.

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